Volume 4 : Issue 4, July 2014

Table of Content, 25 July 2014

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pii: S225204301400054-4

Considerable Reduction in Sewage Pollutants of Urmia City from Modernist view of Biolac Process

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Original Article, D54
Merufinia E, Rezaei H, Ghaderi J, Shamsaei A.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 353-363. 2014

ABSTRACT: The Biolac filtration system is based on active multi-stage sludge refineries. This system is a kind of modern biological methods in filtration of sewage waters and sludge’s which is so efficient in upgrading of lagoons. This survey aims at the investigation of qualitative sewage polluters and comparison of output results with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards in Iran. First, after studying the details about this system, we focused on analysis of experimental results which was collected during the first six month range of 2010 to 2012 and performance evaluation of system linked to the removal of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), N and P polluters. With regard to mentioned investigations and considerations, it can be concluded that the Biolac system was so successful in the removal of polluters such as BOD, COD and TSS.  For BOD the average removal rates were more than 96 percent and the output value was less that 20 mg/lit. For COD the removal rates were more than 93 percent and the output value was less that 30 mg/lit. The average removal rate for TSS polluters was about 93 percent’s and the output value was less than 13 mg/lit. The corresponding rate for P polluters was about 72 and less than 3 mg/lit, respectively. We consider the EPA Standards in Iran and comparing the mentioned results with these standards, it will be evident that the effluent of such system can be discharged to surface waters.
Keywords: Biolac, EPA Standards, Pollutant, Urmia Wastewater

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pii: S225204301400055-4

The Effect of Uncertainties on Calculation of Initiation of Corrosion of Reinforcement for Assessment of Reliability of Concrete Structures

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Original Article, D55
Hosseini S.A., Shabakhty N., Mahini S.S.

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(4): 364-369. 2014

ABSTRACT: An important problem with the analysis of corrosion of reinforcements used in concrete structures is the calculation of corrosion initiation time. The type of concrete, water to cement ratio, curing time, surface chlorides concentration, temperature and thickness of concrete cover over reinforcements are among the most important factors influencing the time required for initiation of corrosion of reinforcement. The multiplicity of parameters and errors in measuring these parameters leads to uncertainties in estimation of corrosion initiation time. Qualitative calculation of the effect of uncertainties associated with the aforementioned parameters is very important to the assessment of the precision of the calculated corrosion initiation time. Knowing the corrosion initiation time and uncertainties in the calculated time helps take preventive measures before the initiation of the corrosion of reinforcement in order to protect structural performance. In this paper, uncertainties were introduced into the model through statistical parameters. Moreover, dispersion and precision of the predicted corrosion initiation time are calculated considering that random factors contributing to initiation of corrosion of reinforcement. In this study, the random properties of factors contributing to the prediction of corrosion initiation were considered. Next, the Monte Carlo random sampling method was used to assess the effect of statistical properties of each parameter on corrosion initiation time. According to the results, even with an increase in the estimation of input parameters used to precisely calculate the corrosion initiation time, the resulting time will be associated with at least 40% of uncertainty.
Keywords: Reinforcement Corrosion, Corrosion Initiation Time, Probabilistic Model, Random Sampling 

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pii: S225204301400056-4

Considering Creep Parameters of Rock Mass to Evaluate the Necessity Thrust for Excavation in Squeezing Ground

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Original Article, D56
Mahdevari S, Bagherpour R.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 370-377. 2014

ABSTRACT: There are a lot of complex problems involving a number of conflicting factors when planning a TBM drive in a squeezing ground. In this respect, numerical analyses represent a helpful decision aid. In this research, Beheshtabad water conveyance tunnel is introduced. Then, the geomechanical rock mass characteristics including time dependent parameters are determined for the 19th zone of Beheshtabad tunnel. Afterwards, the approaches to thrust evaluation and mitigation measures for thrust reduction are reviewed. Then the numerical simulation layout and the achieved results are investigated. According to these results, double and single shield Tunnel Boring Machines (TBM) might be utilized if 55 mm and 20 mm of over-boring in radius could be performed in the A&B and C geological units, respectively. Furthermore, over-boring quantity and shield length affect necessity thrust for excavation more than advance rate and the effectiveness of advance rate increment as a mitigation measure to thrust reduction is decreased by increasing the advance rate.
Keywords: Beheshtabad tunnel, Creep, TBM, Thrust, 3D numerical simulation 

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pii: S225204301400057-4

Reflecting to Explanation of Islamic City’s Authentic Concept

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Original Article, D57
Hemmati Sh-o-d, Saberi J.S.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 378-381. 2014

ABSTRACT: Today, there are many efforts to develop Islamic City’s criteria and requisites that have been endeavored to generalize these characteristics for urban construction. However, most of these definitions and interpretations reflect just a visible aspect the of Islamic City’s concept. Therefore, this present paper is following to extract and classify criteria and key ideas of different descriptions about Islamic City by collecting them and draw from them an index for these criteria that accordance with Islamic City’s idea. Thus, research method of present paper is exploratory and comparative. Its findings implies that all cites could not be nominated this title just having apparent similarities to Is Islamic City and by classification tech and indicators in order to assess compliance with these standards, we find the idea of the city. Therefore, the method of present is exploratory and comparative. Its findings imply that it is only defined in terms of any urban geography, regional, functional, historical and so on. Then it could not nominate it Islamic city due to the similarities in the appearance. The key element that cause to distinguishing these definitions is its complication with the standards and Islamic validated and documented principles derived from the Quran and traditions.
Keywords: Islamic City, Islamic Teachings, Theoretical Perspectives. 

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pii: S225204301400058-4

Seismic Behavior Assessment of The Historical Tomb of Sheikh Shahab-edin Ahary

D58


Original Article, D58
Pouraminian M, Pourbakhshian S, Khodayari R.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 382-389. 2014

ABSTRACT: This study aims to investigate failure mechanism of historical tomb of Shahab-edin Ahary elements and determines areas prone to structural failure. Since Ahar is one of the most earthquake-prone cities of Iran with relative risk of large earthquakes, the presence of multiple faults in this area as well as historical, cultural and tourism importance of the building, makes its vulnerability assessments and retrofitting inevitable. Because of low adhesion strength of masonry used in the building and regarding its vulnerability records on previous earthquakes, the building seems weak against relatively intense earthquakes. The aim of this study is to investigate vulnerability of this building against possible earthquakes. Selected earthquakes for seismic loading are modified for the maximum horizontal acceleration obtained for this region. Various results have been studied after utilize finite element model using Ansys software and various analyses.
Keywords:
Seismic Behavior, Historical Buildings, Dynamic Analysis, Sheikh Shahab-Edin Ahary, Macro Modeling.

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pii: S225204301400059-4

Investigation of Population Establishment Pattern in the Residential Centers of Tehran Metropolitan Area in Relation to the Role of Urban-Regional Management and Planning System (1966-2011)

D59

Original Article, D59
Lalehpour M.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 390-396. 2014

ABSTRACT: Current study has analyzed the trend of population establishment in residential centers of Tehran metropolitan area between 1986-2011 in relation to the role of formal management and planning system of the country. Hence, the trend of spatial establishment of population in the region has been considered through population absorption pattern of urban and rural settlements of the region and new towns position. The research method is descriptive-analytical. Results show that the structure of management and planning of Tehran metropolitan area in the organization of region’s population establishment hasn’t solidarity and coordination. Population settlement plans in Tehran metropolitan area which has been implemented in the framework of new towns plan has acted in an abstract space without paying attention to policy making and integrated planning for development of other physical elements such as industrial activity centers, communication network and public services and utilities of metropolitan area has acted. This matter has caused that regardless of considerable capacity making in planned new towns, these centers don’t play important role in organization of population establishment in the region. Absorption of population out of new towns’ land has been more than these planned centers. This matter has resulted in irregular development of urban settlements network of Tehran metropolitan area and emergence of environmental problems in the region.
Keywords: Management and Planning System, Residential Centers, New Towns, Spatial Organization of Population, Metropolitan Area, Tehran.

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pii: S225204301400060-4

Three Dimensional Simulation of Flow for Semi Cylindrical Weirs Using Fluent Software

D60


Original Article, D60
Samadi A., Nejati S., Haji Azizi S., Oghati Bakhshayesh B.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 397-401. 2014

ABSTRACT: The weirs are one of the important and prevalent items to measure discharge in open channels and they are used in most of the water distribution networks. Because of the higher discharge coefficient, simplicity in design, more stability of the flow on it in bigger scales, and lower costs rather to the other types of weirs is more superior. In the present study the pattern of the flow on semi cylindrical weirs simulated in three dimension via Fluent software. For simulating the multiphase flow, the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) model is used and in order to simulate the turbulence of flow, k-ε turbulence model is used, and extracted results of the numerical models are evaluated to experimental data extracted from physical models. In general considering the error percentage it could be said that the result extracted from Fluent software has a good adaptation to the experimental data for the same model. It is worth noting simulating the flow has done for three different radiuses of semi cylindrical weirs.
Keywords: Flow pattern, Semi Cylindrical Weir, 3D simulation, K-ε Turbulence Model, Volume of Fluid Model, Fluent software

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pii: S225204301400061-4

Prioritizing Financing Methods for Dam and Power Plant Projects Using Hierarchical Analysis Process (AHP) Model (Case Study of Dam and Power Plant Projects in Iranian Water and Power Resources Development Company)

D61


Original Article, D61
Kasrai AR, KhorsandiSaniKavaki R, Soloukdar A.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 402-408. 2014

ABSTRACT: Today there are many methods of financing in the world and every country selects its convenient financing methods according to its economic and political relations and technological and technical conditions and management skills. Due to the many constraints, developing countries must act with greater sensitivity, so that projects can be completed in the desired time and with optimal and economical cost. This paper aims to briefly review the theories, methods and concepts of financing to take a   step toward understanding the financial situation and choosing the best and most useful techniques. For this reason, Hierarchical Analysis Process (AHP) Model was used which is one the most comprehensive systems designed for multiple criteria decision-making. After forming a tree structure of the factors affecting the financing of projects, using Expert choice Software, the weights of criteria were specified. And after ranking the alternatives, appropriate methods for financing the dam and power plant construction projects were prioritized. The research findings showed that among the seventeen major methods proposed for financing dams and power plant projects in Iranian Water and Power Resources Development Co., according to experts, the "financing" factor has the first priority by earning the most points. Also factors like "compensatory transactions", "foreign investment", "sales of assets", "usance", and "BOT contracts" are the next factors in the ranking of project financing methods, respectively.
Keywords: Finance, Financial resources, Financing of project, Project Financing Techniques, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) 

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pii: S225204301400062-4

Estimating of the Relationship between Chemical Water Quality Parameters and Flow Rate of Karun River in Wet and Dry Seasons

D62

Original Article, D62
Karami O, Shokouhifar M, Boroomandnasab S.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 409-412. 2014

ABSTRACT: Hydro-Chemical Studies using regression tests would be efficient operational to save the time and cost, If the regression tests confirmed the correctness of regression analysis. In this study, water quality parameters of Karun river that are varies during a year by flow rate of the river, has been separated in two categories, Wet and Dry Seasons. Water quality and flow rate data were analyzed by using SPSS 18.0 in six regression models from October 1971 to September 2012. The best regression model selected based on the p-value and the largest adjusted R-Square. Correctness of estimated values was evaluated by using the t-test, in this way residuals of the best model should be distributed normally around zero. The result of statistical analysis showed that obtained regression equation in the Dry Seasons estimates values that are close to reality values at 5% probability level and Inverse regression model is suitable for all parameters except pH and HCO3. In the Wet Season, except the Mg, regressions equation had a good performance. Theory of residuals proved that in the Wet Seasons Inverse regression pattern for TDS, EC, SO4, Cl, Na and SAR and Logarithmic regression pattern for estimating the HCO3 values were appropriate but none of the regression models did not have satisfactory for pH and EC.
Keywords:
Adjusted R Square, Hydro chemical, Karun River, Residual, Regression pattern, t-Test

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pii: S225204301400063-4

Assessment and Feasibility of Tourism Development in the Kanibarazan Wetland of Mahabad, Iran

D63

Original Article, D63
Hossein pour M, Movahhed A., Rashidi Ebrahim hesari A, Shamaie A.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 415-422. 2014

ABSTRACT: Tourism has been approved as in powerful tool in development model, and its activities are known as invisible export and industry, on the other side comprehensive and sustainable requires knowledge of economic, social, cultural and political issues with in the communities. Also tourism development requires extensive participation of local people in tourism development planning where in today world local communities being involved in environment protection in fact for protection of wetland type of public participation are considered. Of course public participation could be effective only while lagoons don’t expose to any threat. So Mahabad city with many attractions in the field of nature tourism including its wetlands could attract lot of tourists through the true scientific management and ensure its sustainability in long-term. Present article reviews tourism and its effects on Mahabad Kanibrazan wetland. Research type in this study is descriptive &analytical. Data gathering tolls in this research are field and library studies and finally for data analysis SWOT model has been used. Research findings show if obstacles like lack of accommodations, health services, amenities, improper recreational facilities and so on being removed not only it would be possible to use potential of the  Kanibarazan  wetland for the purpose of job creating and making money, but also steps will be taken in order to create a tourism center with in the region.
Keywords: KaniBarazan wetland, Tourism Development, Environment, SWOT, Mahabad

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pii: S225204301400064-4

The Evaluation of the Eco-tourism and Geo tourism in Maragheh, Iran: A SWOT Analysis

D64

Original Article, D64
Tavallaei S, Solaymani M, Rashidi Ebrahim Hesari A, Hadjalizadeh J.

J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 423-429. 2014

ABSTRACT: The major objective of this study is to investigate the geo¬-tourism and ecotourism capabilities and limitations of Maragheh and to develop the best strategy toward improving and enhancing tourism management in this region. For this purpose, SWOT strategy planning method was used based on  identification of weaknesses and strengths points (internal factors) and opportunities and threats (external factors). Furthermore, Likert spectrum was used to rank the internal and external factors in order to come up with SO, WO, ST, WT strategies. The study suggests that the region has a high potential regarding tourist attraction. The internal factors of this study (point2.97) indicate that the strength points of the region are more than the weakness points.  In addition, the matrix of the evaluation of the external factors (point2.90) shows that the opportunities of the region are more than its threats. It further argues that the macro tourism strategies of the region must be developed in such a way to make the best use of the local possible opportunities.
Key words: Ecotourism, Geo Tourism, Maragheh, SWOT

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pii: S225204301400065-4

A Seismic Microzonation Study with Geotechnical Aspects on the New Construction Sites in Ardabil, Iran

D65

Original Article, D65
Arjmand Noshahr A., Nouri G., Negahdar R., Sadeghi R.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 430-434. 2014

ABSTRACT: Due to development of constructions in Ardabil city in northwest of Iran and placement of it on the alluvium, seismic and geotechnical hazards assessment on the construction sites are needed. It specifies areas with a high seismic and geotechnical hazards that will ultimately lead to the development of urbanity codes. Hence, the most significant faults in the vicinity of city within circle with radius of 150 km collected. Through the deterministic risk analysis, the design acceleration is obtained. In this paper, according to the geotechnical boreholes and tests to a depth of 40 meters in different parts of the city, beside deterministic risk analysis, ground response analyses using appropriate acceleration time histories based on Iranian seismic code 2800 for the construction sites of the city are performed. Using the data from geotechnical measurements, soil types in the different areas are designated. The soil types in the most parts of studied area are classified as type III of the standard 2800 classification. Comparison of the obtained acceleration with the proposed peak ground acceleration of 0.3g of standard 2800, showed that almost 40% of the grid elements exhibit PGA values of 0.3 g to 0.4 g and 25% exhibit PGA values of more than 0.4 g. The dense granular alluviums and some with high stiffness experience the lowest PGA of about less than 0.3g.
Key words:
Hazard, Design Earthquake, Site Response, Microzonation

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pii: S225204301400066-4

The Impact of Horizontal Drainage on Persistent Leakage of Non-Homogeneous Soil Dam Body

D66

Original Article, D66
Imani O, Merufinia E, Siosemarde M.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 435-439. 2014

ABSTRACT: The leaking water flow from the soil dam body lead to transport of its materials that this issue causes internal corrosion and create piping phenomenon in the dam body. To avoid causing this phenomenon, the drainage plan in the downstream of the dam body is necessary. In this paper, the flow leakage of Jaghnab soil dam by using the seep w software based on finite element method have been calculated and the effect of horizontal drainage dimensions on the amount of leakage flow from the dam body has been investigated and evaluated. The result shows that in the non-homogeneous dam, by increasing the length and the thickness of horizontal drainage, the amount of leakage flow increases too. But the effect of the horizontal drainage length in increasing of leakage flow compared to its thickness is significant. In addition, in the dam shell dissimilar condition when kx>ky, the effect of length and thickness parameters of horizontal drainage for the discharge of the drainage water is reduced.
Keywords:
Horizontal Drainage, Non-homogeneous Dam, Leakage Flow, Finite Element

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pii: S225204301400067-4

Evaluation of Beauty Quality in Urban Landscape Based on the Concept of Time Dimension (Case Study: River Floodway of Zargandeh District, Tehran, Iran)

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Original Article, D67
Daneshpour SA, Danesh Pajouh H.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 440-450. 2014

ABSTRACT: Regarding the development of the cities and increasing human’s interference in natural sources, evaluation of appearance has been set forth as the most outstanding strategy to reach stable development which is one of the basic considerations in treating with natural environment especially in tourism industry, recreation and making environmental qualities. So it is necessary to preserve, manage and design these landscapes regarding visual quality to determine degree, kind and method of interfering. Regarding that the main factors in creating such attractive environments as ideal landscape to produce a degree of echoing beauty are the factors of time and movement in environment, so with looking at practice environment of Urban planning in four  dimensions and considering time as the fourth one, effectiveness of this issue in methods of environment understanding, the importance of places during the time, endurance and adaptability become very clear in the process of Urban planning in practice. The approach of the present study is using the principle of urban planning recording consecutive sequence in movement path and processing and concluding the result of each sequence in consecutive plans. The main framework of estimation is based on the concept of time dimension in the form of moving pictures using visual analyses. The main purpose of the study is reaching to the concept of beauty in city perspective and giving the perspectives the feeling of place and making relationship with beauty quality in city space.
Keywords: Aesthetics, Urban Landscape, Time Dimension, Movement, Pictorial Sequence, Evaluation Criteria 

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pii: S225204301400068-4

Design Principles of Deteriorated Textures (Case study: Farzan Deteriorated Texture, Birjand, Iran)

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Original Article, D68
Sarvarian A, Forouzanmehr B, Ghorbanzadeh C.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 451-460. 2014

ABSTRACT: The urban worn textures are the urban development potentials that turned into a threat to the whole city by implementation of irrelative projects. Farzan neighbourhood is one of urban deteriorated textures of Birjand in Iran that makes it out of the city life cycle during the time beside non- fulfilling the proposed plans. In recent years despite efforts of the many organizations involved in, the reconstruction of neighbourhood has not been fulfilled yet, because of lack of people’s presence. In current research, theory of partnership investigated and techniques of creating motivation for participation of residents in reconstruction of the neighbourhood are defined. All the information available through the studying documents, the track and an interview with the residents is compiled and checked with a descriptive - analytical and qualitative, quantitative method. Finally, the proposed designs for the urban will be presented.
Key words: Deteriorated Texture, Design Principles, Public Spaces, Farzan Square

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pii: S225204301400069-4

Architecture Building Sustainability Regarding Smart Materials

D69

Original Article, D69
Malekizadeh B, Nili HR, and Piri S.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 461-466. 2014

ABSTRACT: In contrast with the arrival of machine and abundant industrial production that leads to reduction of energy resources supply, the world around us is looking for modern systems to be able to not only improve technologies for welfare of human, but to conserve nature and restore resource. As an important branch of modern architecture dealing with adverse effects of technological progress and industrialization, sustainable architecture offers strategies to reduce demanding building industry on natural environment and conveyed modern buildings compatible with nature. What is important to have these buildings, is to reuse technology in smart studding and new material that can improve ecologic behavior of building in smart management; that is, using materials that can adapt itself with environmental changes in the best way. By reducing energy resources it is necessary to use the materials that lead to reduction of energy consumption in buildings. In this paper, first consistent architecture conceptions and materials in Iran are discussed and then with introduction of smart materials, there will be some solutions in order to achieve the goals of constant architecture by using these materials.
Keywords:
Sustainable Architecture, Building Features, Smart materials.

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pii: S225204301400070-4

Evaluating the Physical Functional Indicators Affecting Women’s Safety in Urban Spaces (Case study: Shahin Area 5th Region, Tehran)

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Original Article, D70
Mohseninia Z.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 467-473. 2014

ABSTRACT: Safety of urban spaces has an important role in improving society welfare in all citizens, but among the urban population, some special groups like women, old people, kids and people who has disabilities are living that their safety needs remarkable attention, for example, women for their active participation in society, need to have a city in which they feel safe. Therefore, the main objective of this research is evaluating the effective physical functional indicators on improvement of women’s safety feeling and as a result, their active participation in city. In this study, after general statements and theoretical foundations related to women’s safety in urban spaces, the effective physical functional indicators extracts by research’s literature review and it will measure by the women’s participation in form of a questioner. The main hypothesis in this research is: “it seems there is a direct relation between the level of, cohesion and verity of usage and urban activities in public spaces with the increase of level of women’s safety “which is evaluated by descriptive method and Spearman correlation coefficient. For field study, the region of Shahin in 5th area of Tehran has been chosen. Finally after recognition of this space and statistical analysis derived from questioners, the main hypothesis of research is confirmed and required strategies to improving the women’s safety in urban public spaces are expressed. The results of current study, show that, the appropriate physical situation of urban public spaces has remarkable role in amount of women’s tend to quartering in this spaces and as a result, their level of safety plays and important role. On the other hand, evaluation of experimental perceive model indicate that with the increase of legibility and space familiarity, promotion of famousness or Infamousness of spaces, monitoring spaces and access  to rescue promotion of night life in space and applicability of public transportation the amount of perceived safety feeling from space will increase as well.
Keywords:
Safety, Urban Spaces, Women

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pii: S225204301400071-4

Effect of a High Resolution Finite Volume Scheme with Unstructured Voronoi Mesh for Dam Break Simulation

D71

Original Article, D71
Jalalpour H. and Tabandeh SM.
J. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(4): 474-479. 2014

ABSTRACT: In this paper, a high resolution finite volume method (FVM) is developed in order to discretization of multidimensional mathematical equations of Dam Break Phenomena using an unstructured Voronoi mesh grid for evaluating the effect of this type of mesh. Accordingly, the robust local Lax-Friedrichs (LLxF) scheme was used for the calculating of the numerical flux at cells interfaces. The model named FVDBC was run under the asymmetry partial and circular dam break conditions and then verified by comparing the model outputs with the documented results presented in the literature. A statistical analysis using SPSS statistical are performed to confirm the verification of the developed method. In addition, statistical observations indicated a good conformity between the FVDBC and analytical results clearly. The results of FVDBC code with voronoi mesh presented higher efficiency and precision than other meshes. Thus, it is better to use the voronoi mesh in numerical discrete equations because not only able to complicated geometries but also can give accurate results in lower computational effort. Due to a precise agreement between those output and documented results, the FVDBC could be considered as a reliable method for dealing with shallow water (SW) and shock problems, especially those having discontinuities.

Keywords: Dam break, finite volume method, high resolution Local Lax–Friedrich scheme, Voronoi Mesh.

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pii: S225204301400072-4

A Survey on the Performance of Fuzzy-Neural Network at Predicting the Average Monthly Discharge of Catchment Basin Areas Having Snow Regimes

D72


Original Article, D72
Abbasi D., Ashrafzadeh A., Asheghi R., Merufinia E.
J. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(4): 480-484. 2014

ABSTRACT: Snow is one kind of precipitation that because of its delay in turning into runoff water is much more different from other kinds of precipitation when it comes to modeling how to turn into water. Statistical models and regression are some of the most common analytical methods which mostly, due to solving this phenomenon linearly, are presenting results with errors and are incapable of modeling over-the-time changes of the considered phenomenon with acceptable accuracy. Nowadays intellectual fuzzy and neural systems, considering their abilities at solving nonlinear and complex phenomena, have a wide use in various engineering problems especially in Hydrology. In this study, by using the abilities of fuzzy-neural networks, is tried to create a model which has the least amount of information to perform for predicting the average monthly discharge in Jajrud River. Since Jajrud River is located in a basin with a mostly snowy regime, it’s meant to find a deducible relation between the average monthly discharge and information of the water equivalent of basin’s snow monitoring stations.
Keywords: Average monthly discharge, Neural fuzzy network, Snow melting modeling, Jajrud catchment basin

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pii: S225204301400073-4

Examine the Effect Height on Changing Intermediate Flexural Frames Performance Level after Adding Outward-Oriented Vestibule Braces

D73

Original Article, D73
Khaksefidi S., Ghalehnovi M., Rahdar H. A., Rezaee M..

J. Civil Eng. Urban. 
4(4): 485-491. 2014

ABSTRACT: Considering the inability to design techniques based on force the predicted nonlinear behavior of members, arising from the non-linear properties of materials and the importance of design resistant structure against dynamic loads, such as earthquake force, in-in recent years the tendency of engineers and designers are increasing the use of design methods, based on the displacement and behaviour (design based on performance). Speed and a lot of materials and task force, has led to the construction of steel structures in the countries to expand. Moreover, the presence Iran on the seismic belt ALpayd, more need to study the behaviour of these structures and them resistant design becomes more apparent. On the other hand, construction special flexural frames, recommended by most regulations for use in high seismic zones, it may not, by Non-specialist workforce; Thus, flexural frame, mostly, are constructed from median flexural that using it alone is not suitable in high seismic zones. Therefore, for ease of implementation, often, the first proposals for strengthening these frames is to add brace to them. Also, the urban development and housing demand, shortage of suitable land for urban development alters the pattern of buildings to the high-rise building construction. In this study, with regarding architectural considerations, the effect height at changing flexural steel frames performance level after adding outward-oriented vestibule braces under nonlinear static loading is examined. Capacity spectrum method (CSM) in ATC-40 to obtain performance level was used. SAP2000 software was used for modeling and analysis.
Keywords: Flexural Frame, Nonlinear Behavior , Nonlinear Static, Outward-Oriented Brace

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