Journal of Civil Engineering and Urbanism  
Volume 9, Issue 5: 48-50; September 25, 2019  
Roleve and Historical Building Measurement Studies  
Negin Nasrollahi, Narjes Najafi, Fatemeh Razzaghi and Zahra Kazemi  
Department of Architecture, Faculty of Art and Architecture, Maragheh Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), East Azarbaijan, Iran  
Corresponding author’s Email:  
The mistake many officials make is to think that they know what a city is, but the ways in which they offer  
problems are not the result of a deep understanding, and that leads to more problems. First we should consider the  
term “city” and its relationship with our lifestyle. A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although  
there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many  
cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law. For example, in the American  
state of Massachusetts an article of incorporation approved by the local state legislature distinguishes a city  
government from a town. A historical look at the cities may lead us to the conclusion that we do not know the city  
and to understand it we may have to increase our studies in this field. I hope this article helps us learn more about  
how cities came into being  
Keywords: Roleve, City, Civilization, Settlement, Urbanization  
kinds who had human awe. In order to honor these gods,  
various temples and shrines were built in the cities.  
The second factor is the economic factor that  
determined the way of earning income and livelihood of  
the Greeks, which, because of the unfavorable climate for  
agriculture, led to maritime trade with civilizations, which  
led to the formation of cities on the coast.  
The third factor, which manifested itself most in the  
classical period, was "democracy", in which, in contrast to  
the monarchy, the citizens played a role in governing the  
city by forming a council of three groups: slaves, non-  
natives, and citizens. It was divided, of course, that only  
men had the right to serve on city councils and offices.  
For this reason, the boys practiced the skills of  
reading and writing, arithmetic, playing music, sports, and  
rhetoric, and the Greeks believed that they developed both  
their minds and their bodies.  
A study of the history of urbanization in the world shows  
that Iran has a long history of urbanization in the world,  
although the Median rule began before the Sassanids.  
Lifestyle is a concept that has various constructions of  
human life, in other words, the concept of lifestyle has  
emerged from the heart of the city and urbanization and is  
in a reciprocal relationship with it (Morris, 2009).  
City in Early Civilization  
The emergence of urban civilization coincides with  
the emergence of early human settlements. Based on the  
existing studies, the cities of these civilizations are based  
on two factors. The first factor is natural and biological.  
The five early civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India,  
China, and South and Central America were all river  
civilizations and depended on agriculture. The second  
factor: "Religious beliefs and religious customs and  
traditions" have been influential on the elements in the  
city. Together, these two factors, with their strengths and  
weaknesses, have determined the way of life as well as the  
type of social interactions and even the physical shape of  
the city. Religious beliefs have been the dominant factor  
due to their managerial role in shaping social relations and  
making decisions about the pillars and components of the  
City in the period of Roman civilization  
The city and its structure in Roman civilization are  
based on four factors. The first three factors are the same  
as the shaping factors of Greek cities, albeit with some  
modifications. Thousand years ago, the Roman army was  
one of the best equipped armies in the world. While the  
architects mastered the art of using stone and concrete,  
military engineers used metal and wood to create weapons  
Among other things, the number of Roman gods  
increased and they changed their nature from physical to  
spiritual. This number of gods increased the number of  
temples in the cities. The role of trade in relation to Greek  
civilization diminished and gave way to agriculture. On  
City in Greek civilization  
This civilization is located in the Balkan Peninsula in  
southern Europe and is the result of the interaction of  
three factors. The first factor was the Lord of various  
To cite paper: Nasrollahi N, Najafi N, Razzaghi F, Kazemi Z (2019). Roleve and Historical Building Measurement Studies. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 9 (5): 48-50.  
the other hand, the system of governing cities in this  
civilization began with the monarchy, continued with the  
system of the republic and the Senate, and finally ended  
with the empire.  
which was sometimes used in an extreme way, has many  
City during the industrial revolution  
The emergence and expansion of multiplicative  
arches in temples and urban spaces, the addition of a  
The city was completely influenced by industry  
during this period, which caused many changes, such as:  
creating various and new functions in the city and  
especially in the formation of industries, the expansion of  
these industries in cities caused a population explosion  
due to the large migration of villagers to the city. Working  
in the factory and earning more money. And at the same  
time, we are witnessing the formation of large-scale  
service operations to meet the large urban population,  
which is like hotels and large shops. Another change that  
occurred with the development of the industry is  
providing new transportation using smelters.  
The railway is also a new element that has affected  
the shape of the city and challenged the natural fences of  
time and space.  
The Middle Ages are divided into two periods in  
terms of city and urbanization:  
water supply network,  
sewerage network, the  
construction of multi-storey dwellings and the  
construction of settlements called "Castra" as military  
barracks in the conquered lands.  
Island surveying sketch  
Island surveying sketch is prepared with the roleve  
measurements and signed by the renovation team (Yalcin  
et al., 2013). ‘Roleve’ is steps to sign the ground control  
points in the cadastre island, to survey cadastre island  
points, to write coordinate values of these points, and to  
print or to draw the sketch (Hopfer and Zrobek, 1991).  
The final roleve sketch (on computer or on paper) shows  
the boundaries of the parcels, the linear measurements, the  
points and their coordinates, area and the identification  
1: The era of feudal mechanism domination over  
most of Europe.  
2: From about 1200 AD, cities began to form with a  
dominant commercial function.  
City in the middle ages  
The Middle Ages are divided into two periods in  
terms of city and urbanization. The first period is the  
period of domination of the feudal mechanism over most  
of Europe. During this period, the people were forced to  
work in the fields of the feudal lords for their livelihood.  
As a result, the city and urbanization are degraded and  
dominated by the rural way of life. From about 1200 AD,  
City after World War II  
There are many trends in this period, but in the case  
of architecture and urban planning, all events can be  
summarized under the main slogan of modern  
architecture. The city center as its most important symbol  
provides its administrative and commercial centers to the  
general discourse of the modern city. The basis of all  
these changes was the power and tools that were provided  
to architects and urban planners with the advancement of  
technology. These powerful tools caused theorists to  
completely separate themselves from the architecture and  
urban planning of the past and turn a blind eye to the  
existing structure of man, and the existence of different  
cultures and tendencies in all parts of the world. This kind  
of view led to the emergence of a style called the  
international style.  
cities began to take shape with  
a predominantly  
commercial practice, and this is the second period of  
urbanization in the Middle Ages (Andrén, 1989; Fulton  
and Brown, 2017). Most people in medieval Europe did  
not live in cities or towns. And yet, cities lay at the heart  
With the formation of the primary nuclei of cities, the  
"surfers" or feudal workers began to migrate in search of  
better economic and social conditions achieved through  
trade and related small industries.  
In general, the city is changing. Public spaces play an  
important role. Streets and alleys that were once grocery  
stores, butchers, etc. are now the place of business of  
many shops, restaurants, cafes. The capitalist economy  
and private companies are formed and developed.  
City in the renaissance  
Humanism, as the main shaping factor in the form of  
the Renaissance city, rises up against the God-  
centeredness of the Catholic Church and influences the  
various layers of European human life. Being at the center  
of the world of man in this movement has also had effects  
on the shape and structure of the city. The discovery of  
perspective as a view of the living environment from the  
point of view of the observer (human), made the street  
element important in the Renaissance. As a result, in the  
two elements of street and square, the use of symmetry as  
one of the principles of renaissance urban space design,  
Pre-Islamic city  
The pre-Islamic Persian city did not form and expand  
at the beginning of its emergence under the influence of  
Mesopotamian civilization. In general, the general  
structure of the pre-Islamic Iranian city, despite the ups  
and downs, is the first fortress of the government, which is  
the location of the palace of temples and military  
facilities. The second is the middle city, which is the  
To cite paper: Nasrollahi N, Najafi N, Razzaghi F, Kazemi  
(2019). Roleve and Historical Building Measurement Studies. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 9 (5): 48-50.  
residence of the powerful people. The third is the outer  
city, where ordinary people live outside the city walls.  
not hesitate to use these factors to achieve a suitable  
City in the Islamic era in Iran  
Competing interests  
The authors declare that there are no competing  
After the arrival of Islam in Iran, the Iranian city  
accepted clear and definite changes. The structure of the  
city in this period includes several main elements: First,  
the mosque, which has been located in Medina as the  
main symbol of the Islamic city since the establishment of  
the Islamic government. Iran’s pre-planned urbanism  
refers back to the pre-Islamic period. In the Islamic  
period, many cities can be pinpointed to specific periods  
of time, based on a pre-planned structure (Razzaghi-asl,  
The second is the bazaar, which is the most common  
urban space and the backbone of the city. The third is the  
residential neighborhoods of cities in the Islamic era. In  
general, the main factors affecting the city can be listed as  
Andrén A (1989). State and towns in the middle ages.  
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Clark P (2009). European cities and towns: 400-2000.  
Oxford University Press on Demand; 2009 Jan 29.  
1- The religion of Islam as the main factor  
2- Economy as the beating heart of the city  
3- Social interactions as shapers of static and  
dynamic spaces.  
Fulton R and Brown RF. (2017). Cities and towns in the  
middle ages. Department of History The University  
of Chicago.  
City in contemporary Iran  
Fulton R, Brown RF, Holsinger BW, Holsinger B, editors.  
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With the beginning of the travels of the Qajar kings to  
Europe, the Iranian city began its rapid journey to become  
more and more similar to European cities, and this journey  
continues to this day with ups and downs. In fact, under  
the influence of European glamor, these changes began  
with the mere imitation of Western cities. The various  
factors that have influenced the formation of the city  
structure in different historical periods are the result of  
numerous human experiences on this planet. It seems that  
each of these factors continues to have an impact on the  
Morris AE (2013). History of urban form before the  
industrial revolution. Routledge; 2013 Dec 2. Google  
Razzaghi-asl S (2017). Analyzing the Impact of Imported  
Plans in Reshaping Iranian Ancient Cities:  
Historical Study. European Online Journal of Natural  
and Social Sciences: Proceedings. 6(1s): 13. Direct  
Yalcin G, Bol A, Eski C (2013). Studies on renovation of  
cadastral sheets for urbanization. Survey Review.  
The city actually plays the role of a container for various  
lifestyle issues. Whatever the shape of this container, it  
will definitely have a significant impact on the shape and  
quality. Other factors that have influenced the structure of  
the city in different historical periods are the result of  
numerous human experiences on this planet. And we must  
Hopfer A and Zrobek R (1991). Cadastre and land  
registration system in Poland. Surveying Science in  
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To cite paper: Nasrollahi N, Najafi N, Razzaghi F, Kazemi  
(2019). Roleve and Historical Building Measurement Studies. J. Civil Eng. Urban., 9 (5): 48-50.