Volume 4 : Issue 2, March 2014

Table of Content, 25 March 2014

Publisher Item Identifier (pii) / Research Title /
Graphical Abstract

Article Information /


pii: S225204301400013-4

 Explanation of Sustainable Architectural Design Motivators with Respect to the Concepts of Sustainability


Original Article, D13
Kazemi M, Akbarian M.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 81-86. 2014

ABSTRACT: For more than half a century, the concepts of sustainability has appeared in developed countries with holding several meetings and conferences and also publishing various articles and book. In the last conclusions of these researches, sustainability pyramid is introduced with three elements of ecological, society and economy; considering these elements is necessary to reach a comprehensive and general insight in this area. With growth of these themes, various academic fields are impressed from the discussion of these concepts. In this regard, in architecture, motivators such as energy efficiency in building, low energy building and green buildings spread in international level. These motivators just cover a part of concepts of sustainability and each of the themes has potentials and defeats. Of The sudden introduction of these concepts to the Iranian literature and architecture without recognizing its potentials and defeats led to detouring from its moderate way. Due to what was mentioned, this paper tries to introduce architectural design motivators in sustainability and then uses these concepts to explain potentials and defeats. This is done through historical-commentary research method and with reference to official and unofficial documents. In this case, motivators of sustainable architectural design that are handled in the contemporary world are explained and their potentials and defeats are analyzed in order to use its advantage and avoid its defeats.
Keywords: Sustainability, Sustainable Architectural Design Motivators, Energy Efficiency in Building, Low Energy Building, Green Building.


pii: S225204301400014-4

Patterns Retrieved from Islamic Wisdom in Iranian Islamic Architecture; Case Study Amir Flint of Yazd


Original Article, D14
Parhizkari Z.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban. 4(2): 87-92. 2014

ABSTRACT: Various aspects of Iranian art, including architecture principles are the same in structure as well as the components of current concepts. These principles are derived from the knowledge and wisdom of Islamic Iran, Iranian historically associated with all aspects of life, their spiritual needs are met and have become part of their identity. Because of the onslaught of modernity in contemporary Iranian identity for the West, has faded. The aim of this study was to identify some principles and concepts through a comparative study of the structure of Iranian art and architecture is the art of looking through the lost architectural identity in Iran. In this research systematic approach has been used to investigate the structure of the software must pay. Many definitions have been proposed to explain Islamic architecture, the most material aspects and issues have been apparent. Architect is a business that promises spiritual growth and moral virtues, supernatural means of grace in the body possible. And acquiring a real understanding of the universe, God has to rank fi destruction, the wisdom of God to his rehabilitation. Approach to the provision of Islamic architecture, in principle, the endogenous approach, an attitude that may lead to a redefinition of the leading providers of Islamic architecture.
Keywords: Contemporary Architecture, Iranian Architecture, Islamic architecture,  Islamic architecture philosophy, Yazd


pii: S225204301400015-4

Evaluating and Ranking Degree of Development in the counties of Kurdistan Province by Using Morris Quantitative Indicator


Original Article, D15
Feizi Z, Hosseinpour M.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 93-97. 2014

ABSTRACT: Due to the necessity of integrated regional development, dependency analysis of human settlements in the level of areas is considered to be the main part of the planning. The optimum distribution of the population and distribution of economic and social development process is the ultimate goal of regional systems analysis. Thereby, reducing the exclusion and inequality due to having economic and political consequences is of great importance which needs special attention. In fact, achieving comprehensive development and progress in the future requires getting knowledge of the position of regions and various areas. In these regards, applying criteria and quantitative methods in order to classify settlements in the spatial system of regions leads to the identification of degree of inequality in settlement points and also providing criteria for effort in reducing and elimination of existing inequality among them. The main objective of this study was to determining (ranking) the level of development of Kurdistan province, based on various economic, educational, cultural, health and infrastructure indicators. To achieve the desired objectives of this study, the method of Morris quantitative index, which is one of the common methods for the determination of the degree of development in areas, was utilized. In this study, the required statistics and information collected through documents were obtained by referring to the relevant organizations (Plan and Budget Organization.), Statistical Yearbooks and libraries. The results of this research indicate that Bijar and Sanandaj Counties are in the first and second ranks and other counties are in the following ranks.
Keywords: Development, Kurdistan, Morris Index.


pii: S225204301400016-4

The New Attention to Atrium for Creating Sustainable Townscape


Original Article, D16
Kazemzadeh M., Sheikh Asadi F.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 98-102. 2014

ABSTRACT: Townscape that is part of the city supervisory to get and understands it, in the other hand the layer of the city in the townscape becomes a tangible quality. For Factors influencing perceptions of quality and townscape can be noted to a placement position, individual memories of the place and mood an etc.; And atrium can be effective in creating the perception factor outlined. from one side atrium to the interior spaces provides: lighting, ventilation, heating, cooling and also in the other hand, causes a feeling of integration and exchange and correlation in space and generously spacious with good view of the conservation nature between inside and outside of building, applied in appear such an interface between building and city. This paper aimed at expanding the use of an atrium space to a city and urban space, in order to improve the quality of interaction between human and the city, to create mental impressions and good memories of urban spaces and create beautiful urban scenery. In this article atrium spaces introduced be as a factor to improving the quality of the townscape through the connection between old and new urban spaces, particularly to discuss the sustainable urban development and aesthetics of urban space and accept its new role and responsibility and accountability to the new expectations. Findings in this paper shows that with using atrium spaces as a covered public spaces, particularly atrium Plaza, can be create coordination of townscape and create urban spaces with the appropriate dynamic conditions  with a comfortable environment. In this article first tried to introduce factors that changed and enhanced the perception of places in townscape then expressed atrium how to achieve it, and finally review the sample managed atrium application to improve the townscape quality.
Keywords: Townscape, Atrium, Urban Space, Public Space, Sustainable Approach.


pii: S225204301400017-4

Making-Intelligent Place of Buildings in Parametric (Algorithmic) Architecture


Original Article, D17
Moradi M.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 103-109. 2014

ABSTRACT: Regarding that constructing intelligent houses can meet a great part of users’ needs, it is necessary to study parameters related to these buildings. In this time from the beginning process of designing and setting these controlling parameters in design algorithms, in fact design form can be first influenced by construction factors to remove every movement, twist (winding) , bend or everything that make a problem to construct it to build the final form based on these measures. In parametric (algorithmic) architecture it is tried that effective parameters on building physical behavior such as structure and materials etc. influence architecture in constant analysis process and finally design cycle can be reformed in this way. Insisting of designer on developing a formic-space and then forcing an engineering team on making that project is never the best architecture phase. In other side work speed was increased and also a similar environment was created to test and examine project by which weak points can be recognized and strength points can be emphasized; however architecture quality is promoted. In addition all designers need to be able to analyze architecture multi-dimensional data simultaneously. And dominate on the most architecture aspects. However this research tries to point to some aspects of data analysis and finally measuring them by introducing simulating instruments. Expected conclusion is that analyzing data of physical frame and mental frame can simulate some conditions in which environment qualities are provided to some extent in short times for designers. This research is followed in analytical-descriptive way and by library studies.
Keywords: Intelligent buildings, Mental frame, Parametric architecture, Physical frame.


pii: S225204301400018-4

Assessment and Classification of Environmental Problems Based on Sustainable Development Indexes (Case Study: Cities of Yazd Province)


Original Article, D18
Salehi M, Mousavi M, Kashkooli A.B. -

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 110-119. 2014

ABSTRACT: Spread of urbanization lead to increasing the environmental problems for urban residents that it hasn’t agreement with sustainable development purposes. The aim of this paper is assessment and survey of environmental problems in cities of Yazd province base on urban sustainable development indexes with emphasize on the environmental aspects. Thus, methodology is applicable –developmental and statistical population is 24 cities of Yazd province. Based on last political division in 2011, Yazd province has 11 cities, 24 town, 20 section and 51 rural districts. Based on statistical data in 2011, the city of Yazd with population 489152 persons, has about 7 Equal population than the second Meybod city in the province. Survey of environmental problems in Yazd province shows that rapid developmental in industrial fields raised from economical needs and increasing of population in urban regions. In fact in the Yazd province region, most of industrial installation and plants has been built in city of Yazd and they (plants and industrial installation) are important factor for environmental pollution in Yazd. Pollution from slaughter-houses and mines operations is some other environmental problems in Yazd. Rubbishes contaminate underground water in several ways. Analysis base on mean cluster levelling k show that cities of Yazd, Meybod, Ardakan, Aghda, Marvast and Zarch with 71.35 percent of urban population are unstable cities and cities of Shahedieh, Mehrdasht, Hamiidia, Khezrabad and Ahmadabad with 6.99 percent of urban population are stable cities. Spearman coefficient also shows that there is high difference between amount of population and environmental instability. Finally, following solutions are presented for reducing the environmental problems in cities of Yazd province and get to urban sustainable development.
Keywords: Environment, Sustainable Development, Pollution, Waste Waters, Cities of Yazd Province.


pii: S225204301400019-4

Sustainable Residential Buildings in the Tehran Metropolitan Area


Original Article, D19
Bairami A, Tabibian M.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 120-124. 2014

ABSTRACT: Housing is one of the first things that humans have always had to grapple with and always trying to find appropriate and reasonable answers for its issue. Beginning with Twenty-first century, Third World faces several important challenges such as providing proper shelter, employment and environmental sustainability.  In between these, proper shelter is important because the basic needs of the household or individual such as sleep, rest, protection against weather conditions and etc. Appropriate housing is an important goal of the development programs. One of the Indicators for assessing the utility of housing is materials and structures used in residential buildings. This research tries to examine strength of the residential buildings in the cities of Tehran metropolitan area in the past three censuses in 1986, 1996 and 2006. Metropolitan area of Tehran has 20 urban centers in 1986, in 1996 this area had 27 urban centers and in 2006 this area had 53 urban centers. Result show Tehran city has the highest percentage of sustainable residential buildings in the urban centers of Tehran metropolitan area for each census. The mean for percent of sustainable residential buildings in Tehran metropolitan area has been upward all time; this amount achieved 66.80 percent in 2006 from 3.70 percent in 1986. It means substantial growth. Standard deviation is used for measurement of distribution for sustainable residential buildings in urban centers of metropolitan area. Result shows, standard deviation for residential units has been upward from 1986 to 1996 and have been decline from 1996 to 2006. This means increasing development gap in the field of sustainable construction in the urban centers of Tehran metropolitan area during the years 1986 to 2006 and the peak is year 1996.
Key words: Metropolitan Area, Sustainability, Residential Buildings, Building Strength, Assess the Degree of Development.


pii: S225204301400020-4
Ecological Design Process, the Way toward Improve Modern Sustainable Architectural Design


Original Article, D20
Feizi M., Ahmadi J. and Ahmadi M.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 125-130. 2014

ABSTRACT: Nowadays the main question of designers is about the consequences of their activities on the natural environment that how should be designed the built environment which not to destroy nature. Due to energy and environmental crisis conditions of present age, it is essential that instead of imitating the techniques of sustainable architecture, to be dealt with a more radical and looked for answer not in the design itself but in the point of view to that. The reason of existing architecture instability can be connected to the lack of designer’s sufficient knowledge of the current situation, inability to categorize and organize their vast architectural information and field of design with the principles of sustainability. The problem could be related to deficiency of a specific design process and lock of holistic and sustainable design approach by the designers. The appropriate design in educational or in commercial architecture requires accurate and systematic process from beginning to the end. The main question of this research that is a logical argument with qualitative- interpretation approach using by library is how could specify the path of the design and promote the theoretical foundation step by step in order to develop suitable architecture. The main assumption in this research is how the design principles is more accurate and predetermined consequently the results is more desirable. Such principles could be found in ecological design. The objective of this work is the present a procedure of modern sustainable architectural design with the title of ecological design which has been introduced by Malaysian architecture Ken-Yeang. Based on the mentioned method, the process of design was presented in form of a table to make the designer to be capable to the accurate and classified design.
Ecology, Built Environment, Sustainable Architecture, Ecological Design.


pii: S225204301400021-4

Investigating the Thermal Behavior of Wind Catcher Room of Rasoulian House in Yazd and Proposing Some Methods for its Improvement


Original Article, D21
Kazemi Mand Akbarian M .

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 131-136. 2014

ABSTRACT: Yazd traditional houses are valuable and precious inheritance from our ancestors; therefore, some actions such as changing their application must be taken in order to protect and maintain them. Changing the application of these buildings to some others such as educational, cultural and entertainment centers leads to consumption of nonrenewable energies to prepare thermal comfort for their users. However, the consumption of nonrenewable energies can be minimized using potentialities of these houses. This investigation tries to study thermal behavior of the wind catcher room of Rasoulian house in Yazd which nowadays has been changed into a classroom, for architecture students. In addition to thermal behavior at the traditional status, climatic methods which were implemented at this space are also introduced and analyzed; this study also reviews some other researches in order to find some solutions for improving thermal behavior and minimizing nonrenewable energy consumption. Therefore, some methods are explained to use the potentialities of this building with making minimum changes in the body of the building to prepare thermal comfort for its users.
The Wind Catcher, Thermal Comfort, Natural Ventilation, Solar Vent Hole, Rasoulian House.


pii: S225204301400022-4

Essay on Characteristics of the Quadruplet Elements and Strategic Analysis of the Performance of It in Traditional and Modern Architecture


Original Article, D22
Alimoradi M., Mohebikia A.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 137-142. 2014

ABSTRACT: Our ancestors were attention to nature and to preserve the purity and sanctity of it. This is particularly has been true in the four main elements (water, wind, soil, fire) that commonly referred to as material prima. The way that culture and literature is also very expressed. This is also evident in their architecture and the build. That can lead to environment from architecture and design of building. The importance of the issue to be determined by that time, that we face with the lake of energy resources and environmental pollution with the progress of technology, industrialization and increased fossil fuel use. The idea of Strategic analysis in this article to what methods can help to resume the relationship of man and nature elements. In line with the aim, with the Swot method we will examine the strength, weaknesses, opportunities, threats about employing the above elements and the approach the maximum exploitation of the dominant element in any area or in other words ecology. 
Quadruplet Elements, Ecology Architecture, Swot, Renewable Energy, Sustainable Architecture


pii: S225204301400023-4

Studying the Significance and Effect of Parks and Green areas on Improving the Citizens’ Life and Embellishing Urban Spaces Based on the Seeking-Escaping Theory (Case Study: Shiraz Parks)


Original Article, D23
Amirsheakri S, Amirsheakri S, Ataei O.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 143-150. 2014

ABSTRACT: The increasing growth of population as well as the complexity of urban issues, lack of appropriate financial and human resources, environment pollution and etc. sometimes lead to the matter that urban designers forget or not be able to accomplish this very objective that citizens needs peace and relaxation in the racket of life, pollution, tiredness and routine. This has led to the issue that factors like the closeness of humans’ workplace and living place, small green areas inside cities as well as their usefulness for people etc. be considered the least. As the foci of humans’ activity and life, cities have no way but accepting the structure and function influenced by natural systems to be able to maintain their sustainability. In the meantime, urban green spaces are the integrative part of cities’ body playing a critical role in their metabolism the lack of which can result in the serious disorders in their life. Public green space or parks will have major effect on improving the quality of citizens’ life and embellishment of the city. In this article, attempts have been made to examine the mental and social effects of urban parks on the improvement of the citizens’ quality of life and their role in embellishing urban spaces by two case studies (Shiraz green spaces) using Seeking-Escaping pattern. Results indicate that Shiraz citizens tend to urban parks to access healthy air, family entertainment, freshness and avoiding pollution and the scarcity of residential environment, hiking, removing tiredness, running away from routine, and etc and these spaces have significant effect on embellishing urban spaces.
Park, Green Area; Improving Life; Embellishing City; Seeking-Escaping Theory


pii: S225204301400024-4

Electronic Payments; a Step towards Reducing Intra-Town Trips and Sustainable Urban Architecture (Case Study: Yazd Township)


Original Article, D24
DehghanpoorA. R., MahmoodiNia M. and  RezaieH.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 151-155. 2014

ABSTRACT: The quick growth of the population of the country and the subsequent growth in urban development cause an increase in population concentration, environmental pollution, traffic load, and consequently, in time waste. Amongst the demands of urban population, solving the problem of traffic and transportation is of great significance. Therefore, employing strategies to reduce the load of traffic in cities seems necessary. Information and Communication Technology is one of these strategies, which has currently substituted physical intra-town trips with electronic trips, and by such substitution, some countries have saved millions of dollars which was to be spent on building new passages and high ways. Hence, the present study aims to investigate the effect of electronic payments on reduction of intra-town trips. Research population consists of three neighborhoods of Yazd Township that were selected via clustering analysis. Inferential statistics including Spearman Correlation was used for data analysis. The results of the study show that there is a significant correlation between electronic payment and reduction of intra-town trips, and subsequently consolidation of urban architecture.
Information and Communication Technology, intra-town trips, electronic payments, Yazd Township


pii: S225204301400025-4

Revising Iranian Experience in Establishing Pedestrian Zones; Surveying Strengths and Weaknesses of Pedestrian Zones in Tehran


Original Article, D25
Fallah Manshadi E., Rouhi A. and Khodaverdi Nelkhasi Om-S.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 156-163. 2014

ABSTRACT: Though the experience of pedestrian establishing in the world backs to 70 years ago, this is a new approach in Iran. In recent years, establishing pedestrian zone is getting more popular due to paradigm shift in urban governance from motorized to human based development. Pedestrian zones like 17 Shahrivar (Shohada), 15 khordad, Sepah-Salar, Soore-Esrafil, Babe-Homayoon, Naser Khosro, Marvi, Saboonian, Ehsani, Shah-Abdol- Azim, and Baradarane- Mozaffar are the results of such paradagim shift. Present paper tries to evaluate these pedestrian zones in order to determine the strengths and weeknesses of each one. Direct observations and interviews were used as research tools. The results of evaluation and comparative comparison show that from 11 pedestrian zones in Tehran, Sepahsalar, 15 khordad and Shah-Abol-Azim have the best conditions while Baradarane Mozafar and 17 Shahrivar have inappropriate situation. Although pedestrian zones in Tehran are almost in appropriate level from pedestrian facilities point of view like pavement and lightening; some factors such as lack of mixed land use, motorcycles and cars penetrating the pedestrian zones, lack of public toilets and disabled facilities, ignorance of public participation have negative effects on citizen satisfaction.
Pedestrian Zone, Evaluation, Comparative Comparison, Tehran


pii: S225204301400026-4

Investigating the Role of E-Tourism in Urban Constant Development with an Emphasis on Entrepreneurship (Case Study: Abarkouh Township)


Original Article, D26
Dehghanpoor A.R., MahmoodiNia M, Rezaie H.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 164-168. 2014

ABSTRACT: Today towns are regarded as efficient elements in economical development of countries. Towns have various capabilities and potentials in respect with tourism, including residence, food, recreation, transportation, and commercial facilities that are appropriate factors for tourism and attracting tourists. In this study, besides investigating e-tourism as an efficient factor and a driving force for improvement of entrepreneurship and subsequently economical development, benefits of developing e-tourism for the economy of the town has been investigated. The present study aims to analyze various aspects of virtual tourism as well as its role in constant development of the town. The method of this study has been descriptive-analytic; and the method of data collection has been documental and field work; i.e. interview and questionnaire. Findings reveal that on one hand, virtual tourism, with contribution of marketing and advertisement, causes occupational movement and relative economical development; and on the other hand with identifying tourism potentials of the area, contributes to facilitate the identification of the area and subsequently, to constant development.
Tourism, Information and Communication Technology, Entrepreneurship, Economic Development, Abarkouh


pii: S225204301400027-4


Assessment less Developed Neighborhoods to Earthquake Risk (A Case Study of Qaradiyan Neighborhood of Sanandaj City)


Original Article, D27
Habibi K, Tavallaei R, Azami M.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 169-178. 2014

ABSTRACT: Earthquakes are known as a recurrent phenomenon during history. In most cases, they have destructive effects on human settlements and put considerable damage on the citizens. Whereas, The old and erosion texture of the city are the most vulnerable parts to natural disasters. Not paying enough attention to consolidation these textures has led to their increasing vulnerability in a way that there is the most damage in these parts in the smallest natural disasters. This paper, which is based on a quantity-analytic approach, is seeking to investigate and analyze the vulnerability of the Qaradiyan neighborhood as an old texture in Sanandaj city by decadence and intervention indexes using the Fuzzy model to provide strategies that reduce the vulnerability of these textures to earthquake dangers and achieving to urban sustainability. Results of this paper show that high population density, high level of household rate, low level of building ownership, high occupancy rate, small size blocks, narrow and impasse pathway, unavailability to open and suitable spaces, durable buildings and their low resistance of structure to earthquakes are some of the features of this district.
Urban Sustainability, Vulnerability, Crisis Management, Fuzzy model


pii: S225204301400028-4

Sustainable Urban Development and Issues Dominating Design of Bike Lanes (Focusing Hamedan of Iran)


Original Article, D28
Rismanian M., Habibvand N.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 179-183. 2014

ABSTRACT: Nowadays with the increasing importance of issues such as sustainable development, and  green transportation, using bicycles as a means of transport for urban dwellers is very important and inevitable .Therefore, it has become necessary to design and build a safe, connected, and comfortable network of the bike lane to achieve urban sustainable development. It is noteworthy that environment, natural resources and energy conservation, are under the influence of urban transportation and the issues related. But given the cost and difficulty of designing a new bike path and new nature of the subject, it is observed that establishing bike path has confronted with numerous obstacles in our country. In this paper, we describe a descriptive-analytic method – focusing the field and library studies- and explain standards for bicycle path design towards sustainable development, while investigating obstacles and problem of design and management of bike paths in Boulevard Eram Hamedan.
Transportation Environment, Design Requirements, Comfortable And Easy Path, Standard, Path Continuity


pii: S225204301400029-4

Learning from European Capitals of Culture Program in Developing Urban Tourism


Original Article, D29
Jalalian Hosseini SM, Pourjafar MR, Ranjbar E.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 184-194. 2014

ABSTRACT: Cultural potential in today's urban design literature is considered as an efficient tool in urban regenerating in addition to improving urban tourism. The integrated decision of European countries in organizing the European capital of culture program since 1985 followed specific goals, such as attracting international tourists. Considering the Islamic capital of culture program and selection of Mashhad as Cultural Capital in 2017, this paper attempts to examine the European capital of culture program to study their achievements. The Research method of this article is an analytical - descriptive method based on content analysis of two group of documents: The first group of documents are those provided by the EU for selection and evaluation of cultural capitals, and the second group consists of 5 cultural capitals' documents from different parts of Europe. Results of analysis indicate that by selection of each city as the capital of culture, the whole country gets involved in the program and a wide range of projects from micro to macro levels will be planned for the city in different cultural contexts. This program has had different results and impacts, some of which include: representing cultural and historical origins, attracting more local, national and international tourists, improved international image of the city, presentation of different art groups creativity, different rate of tourist attraction, Improving economic infrastructure, enhancing national pride and confidence and strengthening cultural cooperation in Europe.
Capital of Culture Program; Europe's Experiences; Urban Tourism


pii: S225204301400030-4

Converting the Village to City and Sustainable Urban Development (A Case of Fars Province - Iran)


Original Article, D30
Omidi S, Khatoon Abadi A, Ebrahimi MS.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 195-198. 2014

ABSTRACT: In the recent years, increase in urban centers by promoting the big and susceptive villages is considered as one of the main policies to improve the rural life style in Iran. In this way, many rural areas have been converted to cities. The aim of this research is prioritization of the effects of villages’ conversion to cities by analyzing the residents’ viewpoints. The research area is Hassanabad rurban in Fars province. The city has improved in 2009. The research method is descriptive - analytical and the required data was collected by questionnaire. The results show that the viewpoint of the residents of Hassanabad has the greatest impacts on the social dimension indicators such as: improvement of: health services, communication services and the accommodations’ safety facilities. Also greatest impacts on the positive economic Hassanabad to city conversion are respective in indicators: increased shopping around  villages of Hassanabad, reduce dependence on county center and access to required goods in place and greatest impacts on the negative economic are respective in indicators: increased tax costs, reduction in pasture land and difficulty of keeping livestock in the city limits.
City, Conversion, Policy, Rurban, Village.


pii: S225204301400031-4

The Influence of Material Properties and the Geometrical Parameters of the Operating Arch on the Stability of Vaults


Original Article, D31
Valibeig N, Esmaeili M, Ansar A

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 199-205. 2014

ABSTRACT: One of the key elements in architecture is vault. Because timbers are locally available only in certain parts of Iran, the vaults used to be built in various arched forms especially in traditional buildings. Identifying the structural characteristics of such vaults may reveal the innovative approaches adopted by the Persian architects who tried to design and build the vaults in based on a sustainable architecture; a kind of architecture that was, from one hand, adaptable to climate, location and local materials, and capable, from the other hand, to meet the users' needs. The materials used in and the geometric characteristics of the arches are two determining factors in vault stability. The major part of the past research has focused on examining the strength of the arches statically. The present study, however, aimed to analyze the impact of materials and geometric characteristics on the vault resistance. To this end, the behavior of geometric arches in different forms and sizes along with various materials were studied. The identified generate arches were drawn by design soft wares and then analyzed by resistance analyzers. The results clearly revealed the effective role of geometric parameters, materials and thickness of arch base in vault stability.
Sustainable architecture; Stability; Generate arch; Geometry; Material.


pii: S225204301400032-4

Study of Talesh City Architectural Design Based on Regional Climate


Original Article, D32
Rezayi Banafsheh M, Nasiri Ghalebin S, Zarei J.

Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
4(2): 206-212. 2014

ABSTRACT: Architecture climatology is a branch of applied climatology that affected human life. The structure of buildings in various areas affected by climate and culture. Attention to area climate influences on building design, to increase people comfort, is inevitable. Due to humans are affected by the area climate, climate scientists and architects due to climates in different regions, working together to enhance people comfort. In this study, the case study is Talesh city that located in West of Guilan. It has temperate and humidity climate. To study of area climate and type of buildings and their adaption to area climate, Mahoney indicator is used. Because of the lack of the climatic data of Talesh, Rasht climatic data as: temperature, humidity, rainfall, prevailing wind direction, wind calm percent, cloudy days and sunny hours that are similar to Talesh climate  were used. This data are taken from the Meteorological organization which related to the years of 1992 to 2012.
Climate, Architecture, Talesh, comfort, Mahoney