Volume 3 : Issue 1, January 2013

   Table of Content, 25 January 2013

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Ancient Tunnel and Diversion Channel in Seleuceia Pieria: A Flood Diversion System near Antiochia in Turkey

Original Article, C1
Alkan A,ÖZİŞ Ü.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
3(1): 01-05. 2013

ABSTRACT:The diversion system at Çevlik, near Antakya in Turkey, had the purpose to prevent the siltation of the antique harbour of Seleuceia Pieria. This 875 m long system consists of a dam, a short approach channel, the first tunnel, a short intermediary channel, the second tunnel, a long discharge channel. The construction began in 1.century A.D. during the reign of Vespasianus, continued under his son Titus and several successors, completed in 2.century A.D. during the reign of another roman emperor, Antonius Pius. The tunnels of simple horseshoe and trapezoidal cross-sections, with dimensions in the order of 5 to 7 m, have a capacity of 150 m3/s. The capacity of the open channel section is computed as 70 m3/s, corresponding to a peak flood discharge with average recurrence interval of about 10 years.  
Keywords: Çevlik, Seleuceia, Tunnel, Flood, Diversion.

Comparison of Four Distributions for Frequency Analysis of Wind Speed: A Case Study



Original Article, C2
Daneshfaraz R., Nemati S., Asadi H., Menazadeh M.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
3(1): 06-11. 2013

ABSTRACT: The increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries to use renewable energy sources, especially wind energy. Wind speed is the most important parameter of the wind energy. Probability distributions are useful for estimating wind speed because it is a random phenomenon. This study analyzes wind speed frequencies using wind data from Urmia synoptic station in Iran. Four different distributions are fitted to the maximum annual wind from station, and parameters of the distributions are estimated using the method of maximum likelihood and the method of moments. Calculations are performed with Mathematica, a computer algebra system developed by Wolfram Research. The advantage of using this software is that the symbolic, numerical, and graphical computations can be combined and that all quantities can be accurately calculated; in particular, there is no need to resort to any approximate methods for the calculation of quantiles. There is a ready-to-use command for calculating quantiles from distributions that are built in Mathematica, while for other distributions they can be easily and accurately calculated by inverting the cumulative distribution functions or by solving nonlinear equations where the inversion is not possible. The best distribution is selected based on the root mean square error (RMSE), the coefficient of determination (R2), and the probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC). The results indicate that the best performance can be obtained by the truncated extreme value   distribution.
Keywords:
Mathematica; Probability distribution; Urmia; Wind energy; Wind speed frequency

Improvement of Clayey Soil Characteristics Using Rice Husk Ash



Original Article, C3
Mohammed Y. Fattah, Falah H. Rahil, Kawther Y. H. Al-Soudany.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
3(1): 12-18. 2013

ABSTRACT: Rice husk ash (RHA) is a pozzolanic material that could be potentially used in soil stabilization, though it is moderately produced and readily available. When rice husk is burnt under controlled temperature, ash is produced and about 17%-25% of rice husk’s weight remains ash. This paper presents the results of experimental study carried out on three different soils improved with different percents of rice husk ash. Samples were brought from different sites of Iraq. The testing program conducted on the clayey soil samples mixed with different percentages of rice husk materials, included Atterberg limits, specific gravity, compressibility, unconfined compression test and consolidation test. It was found that the liquid limit of the three soils has been decreased by about (11 - 18) % with the addition of 9% RHA, while the plasticity index decreased by about (32 - 80) %. Treatment with rice husk showed a general reduction in the maximum dry unit weight with increase in the rice husk content to minimum values at 9% rice husk content. The optimum moisture content generally increased with increase in the RHA content. There is enormous increase in the unconfined compressive strength with increase in rice husk content for the soil to its maximum at RHA between (6 – 8) %.
Keywords:
Clayey soil, improvement, rice husk ash, strength.

 Numerical Study of Hydraulic Jump on Rough Beds Stilling Basins



Original Article, C4
Ebrahimi S, Salmasi F, Abbaspour A.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
3(1): 19-24. 2013

ABSTRACT: The hydraulic jump phenomenon is one of the most common phenomena in open channels. A hydraulic jump is a rapid transition from a supercritical flow into a subcritical flow by dissipating a lot of energy. Stilling basins bottom roughness is an important factor to control, reducing jump length and increase energy losses by hydraulic jump. In present study, 2-dimensional numerical simulation of hydraulic jump on rough beds including triangular and rectangular sheets by using standard k-ε model was evaluated. The free surface was determined using the VOF method. Total of 16 simulations were simulated for a range of the Froude number from 3 to 7. The results showed that the sequent depth and length of hydraulic jump are reduced while the energy loss is increased, comparing with classic jump. Also there was a good agreement between modelled results and experimental data. The investigation resulted in some empirical relations to define the sequent depth and bed shear stress for different flow conditions on used rough beds.
Keywords:
Hydraulic jump, Rough beds, Standard k-ε model, VOF method

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Physicochemical Assessment Of Groundwater Quality In Akure, Southwestern Nigeria

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Original Article, C5
Duvbiama Omolara Atarhe and Egbuna Chukwuemeka Kingsley.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
3(1): 25-28. 2013

ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the physicochemical properties of 36 hand-dug wells in the North-western part of Akure, Nigeria. 36 hand-dug wells were analysed for some physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, redox potential (Eh), total dissolved solids, Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, SO4, total alkalinity, total hardness and acidity. Results showed that all the wells except for wells 8 and 31 have their physicochemical parameters within the WHO guideline value. The high level of these physicochemical parameters in wells 8 and 31 could be attributed to geologic formation of these areas. Since most of the occupants of the area depend on these well water supplies for drinking and other domestic needs, it is recommended that any source of contamination should a minimum of thirty five meters away from any source of contamination.
Keywords:
Physicochemical parameter, well, water quality, WHO, Assessment

 

Evaluation of Degree of Women’s General Awareness On Citizenship Rights In Mid-Sized Cities of Bonab and Malekan by Emphasis on Stable Urban Development



Original Article, C6
KarkhanehM, KhosraviM, RahimpourF, HajializadehJ, Rashidi Ebrahim HesariA.
Journal. Civil Eng. Urban.
3(1): 29-36. 2013

ABSTRACT:Stable urban development is one of important affairs in desired and efficient urban management and it is, nowadays, under the concentration by most planners and state officials. One of the important affairs building the milestones of realization of stable urban development is the quantity of the necessary conditions for application in the fields of law and regulations relating to cities and citizenship rights. Citizenship rights can have strong short-term and long-term effects on the spirit of cities during periods of time. The present article tries to show first, the amount of awareness of women at the ages of 20-35 in the cities of Bonab and Malekan about law, major citizenship laws such as the degree of their awareness of general citizenship laws, civil laws, trade regulations, and regulations relating to public green spaces, prevention of cutting down trees, and preservation of public places, and then it tries to show a relation of amount of effectiveness and efficiency of this awareness with desired urban management and its development. The research is descriptive- analytical and the method of collecting data is done in the field. Of course, in order to clarify the bases and principles of stable urban development, some documentary studies have been utilized. The number of the subjects in the sample societies is, on the basis of Kokearan, 400 people. The results of the research show that the amount of women's awareness in the above –called cities is not so desirable and this in its turn, since half of the population in cities are women, can be a big obstacle in realization of stable development and then the way of these cities toward stable development will be lowered. The results of the research, also, points out that there is a meaningful relationship between amount of citizens' awareness of their rights and three factors of level of their education, the amount of their contribution in social activities, and their use of mass media.
Keywords:
Citizenship Rights, Stable Development, Women Population, Mid-sized Cities, Bonab, Malekan